This article about sources of water for the Cresson Sanatorium is lenghty
and very technical. However, it does give an in-depth look at the sources of water in Cresson and surrounding towns.
WATER SURVEY FOR
STATE CRESSON SANATORIUM 1909
Mr. Andrew Carnegie presented to the Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania, a tract of land located near Cresson on top of the Allegheny Mountains, for
use as the site of a tuberculosis sanatorium. This gift was made during the summer of this year,
and as soon as the necesary details could be arranged, surveys of the property were started
and n general engineering investigation was made.
The proposed site for the new State Tuberculosis Sanatorium
near Cresson, Cambria County, is located on the summit of the Allegheny Mountains li miles east of the borough of Cresson which lies 15 miles
west of Altoona on the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The tract of land presented to the State by Mr. Andrew Carnegie
for this purpose has an area of 49N acres and is at an elevation ranging from 2,300 to 2,560
feet above the sea level and averaging approximately 2,450 feet above the sea level.
The land is on the watershed
divide between the Susquehanna and the Conemaugh Rivers. It comprises the highest land in elevation
in Ibis vicinity, although there is a hill one mile south of this property on the divide which rises to an elevation of 2,(520
feet.The land lies on both sides
of the Pittsburg and Philadelphia Turnpike and is bordered on
the northwest by the Old Portage Road. Plane No. 5 of the Old; Portage Road is immediately west of the main section of this
tract, being separated therefrom by a small tract of private property. At the intersection of the Old Portage Road with the
turnpike is the village of Summit which consists of a group of houses extending along both roads from their intersection for
a distance of several hundred feet.
The tract is drained on the north by the headwaters of Bradley Run, which flows northerly near the western part of
Oallitzin Borough and helps to form one of the headwaters of the Susquehanna River. On the east
the tract is drained by Blair Gap Run and Adams Run which drain that portion of the tract which
extends into Blair County and flows easterly, forming one of the headwaters of the Juniata River,
a tributary of the Susquehanna. On the west several small streams head in the tract and flow
westerly, forming the headmaters of the Conemaugh River.
The northern portion of the tract along the turnpike has been cleared but the main portion lying south of the turnpike
and extending across the county line into Blair County is covered with a second growth of timber.
This latter section embraces the elevated portion of the tract which extends along a ridge having a northwesterly and
The surveys were begun on November 18th, at which time permission was obtained by the Commissioner of Health from
Mr. Carnegie to enter the premises. The survey consists of a complete topographic survey of the entire property; a property
survey for establishing the boundary lines; a survey of the Pittsburg and Philadelphia turnpikes
from the Pennsylvania Railroad at Cresson to the property; and check
levels from the railroad bench mark at Cresson marks on the property including a series of check
levels around the property.
The survey of the turnpike was begun fust and a traverse was run from the .railroad
to the property. This was tied in with the various roads and lanes connecting with the turnpike
and all houses and other structures were accurately located. A
profile of the road was then run with elevations taken at 100 foot intervals and at changes
of line and grade. Check levels were then run from the railroad bench mark and
bench marks were established on the property. Observations were then made on Polaris and a
true north and south line was established on the property.
The property survey was started after these preliminary steps had been
completed. Asmuths referring to the true north were used on all courses. The property was divided into two nearly equal parts
for the survey and a control traverse was run around each part. This control traverse consisted
of a random traverse following as closely as possible the property lines and tying in witli
all corners. A level party followed up the transit party and established bench marks at all
hubs for the stadis survey. After the traverse was balanced and found to be correct, cross traverse
were run across the tract at 400 foot intervals and transit stations were established along
them at points approximately 400 feet apart. Levels were carried to all these transit stations by the level party and
from these points stadia shots were taken for topography and location of streams, houses,
trees and other objects. The field work was plotted every night and during
bad weather so as to have the office work kept up with the field work. In this way mistakes were picked up and
corrected easily, and there was no difficulty in remembering local conditions at any
main difficulty encountered in making this survey was the weather conditions. The winters on top of the Allegheny are extremely
severe and start early. Before the work had been- in progress two weeks there were frequent
snow storms and the temperature during the early morning hours became so low that it was impossible
for the men to work. Work was, however, pushed on under these trying conditions, and by the
latter part of December the eastern half of the tract had been completed in addition to the survey of the turnpike and
the check levels. On December twenty-seventh it was decided to suspend work temporarily on account of the severity
of the weather.85—16—1909
A general investigation was made of tlio water supply
available for this institution. All sources available were investigated and a study was made
of the most mailable sources.It
has been assumed for the purpose of studying the source of supply that thW sanatorium will be
constructed for a capacity of 1,000 people and that the water consumption will be at a rate
of 100 gallons per capita per 24 hours. This would make the required water supply 100,0(10 gallons per 24 hours. It has further
been assumed that the sanatorium will be located on the high ground somewhere along the ridge
and as this is shown above any source of supply available, it will require that the water supply
or estimates have been prepared for the water works system or storage reservoir, as the details
of (his cannot be determined until the exact location of the sanatorium has been decided upon.
The location of a large reservoir could be made on the hill 2,020 feet high located one mile south of the tract on private
property. There is an open field on this hill ami inspection shows that a good site can be obtained. An elevated tank or standpipe
could be built on the Carnegie property in ease it was decided not to construct a reservoir. A comparative cost of the two
projects cannot be made until the location of the sanatorium has been decided upon.There are four sources of supply to be considered
for obtaining the water supply for this sani tori inn. They are: First, springs: second, drilled wells: third, surface water
supply: fourth, water company supply.
The strata below the surface of the Carnegie tract dips between three and four per
cent, in the direction of 27 degrees west. It consists of alternate layers of sand stone, shale and
fire clay lying above the Upper Freeport coal vein, which on the western portion of the tract near the village of Summit
lies at a depth of 200 feet below the surface. These layers outdrop along the western slope of the tract and
it would therefore be expected that springs would be found along this slope. There are
several springs along the western slope of this tract and the main group is situated near the
western central portion at the head of several ravines and feed several of the small streams
which unite at the foot of Plane No. 5 on the Portage road and form one of the headwaters of
the Conemaugh River. These springs are located at an elevation approximately of 2,300 and as
the Upper Freeport coal vein outcrops near the eastern boundary of the tract, the strata which feed the springs outcrop within
the tract at correspondingly higher elevations so that the water storage in the strata of these springs is extremely limited
and during a prolonged drought these springs are practically dry. The strata which feed these
springs appear to be of excellent water-bearing formation and during a wet season there is an
ample supply for them.
might be possible to construct dams across the ravines from these springs to form storage reservoirs which would hold sufficient
water to supply the institution during the dry season. Such storage would have to be for at least 120 days' supply which
would require 12.(MX),000 gallons storage. These ravines will receive all the natural drainage from the proposed site of the
institution and although this could be protected from contamination by ditches, yet the fact
that these ravines form the natural drainage for the Institution site would probably prejudice it against use for storing
the water supply.During the drought
in the fall of 1!MJ9 all of these springs were examined and the flow was so small that it could
not be measured. There appeared to be no water in the creek beds in the ravines. Springs, however, which outcropped at a lower
level on the adjacent property and which had a larger storage capacity continued to flow and a measurement taken on the creek below Plane No. 5 just above the Upper Freeport coal gave a flow
of 52,750 gallons in 24 hours. Most of this water appeared to outcrop at Plane No. 5 from the strata above the Upper Freeport
western side of the Carnegie tract a few feet south of the turnpike (here is a spring on the Carnegie property which supplies
the Summit Hotel, belonging to Mr. Joseph Fisher. This spring has a small flow and has never
heen known to go dry. It is understood that the rights of this water belong to Mr. Fisher. On the north side of the turnpike
opposite to this spring there is another spring on the Carnegie property which is included in the sub-division assigned by
Mr. Carnegie to the Cresson Cemetery Association. This spring is also small and
has never gone dry.The
springs which furnish the water supply for Cresson Borough are located in the extreme eastern
portion of the borough on the side of a hill \ mile northwest of the Carnegie tract. These springs outcrop at an
elevation approximately 200 feet above the Upp-r Freeport coal. They have gone dry practically every summer and
the borough of Cresson has been without water. They outcrop from strata similar to those
which furnish the springs on the Carnegie property.
There are several dug wells and shallow drilled wells in the village of Summit along
the boundary of the Carnegie property. These wells extend into the same strata which furnish water to the springs previously
described and in rnosl cases the wells have not beo» a success. There is a dug well 2S
feet deep on Mr. Shumate's property which goes dry in the dry season. Between Mr. Shumate's property and
theSummit school house
there is a dug well 27 feet defy belonging to Mr. John McConnell. The bottom of this well is in shale and
it is reported that there is two feet of water in it in the dry season. No test of the capacity has been made. The
school house well is 30 feet deep and is reported to contain six feet of water in.the driest
season. This well is used by most of the neighbors when the other wells are dry.
Directly across the Portage road there is a drilled well 11
inches in diameter and 47 feet deep which belongs to Mr. W. S. McClosky. This well has
been in use for one season and went completely dry.There is also a dug well ou the property of Frank Adlesberger on the turnpike adjacent to the Carnegie property.
This well is 12 feet deep and contains water during the dry season. There is another well 10
feet deep on the property of Sam Lilly near the turnpike. This well is a dug well and contains
water during the dry season. The water in these wells is hard water. Only one of them has been tested during the dry season
and ibis test consisted in pumping out two hogsheads of water, which emptied the well. It required
from eight to ten hours for the well to refill and this would indicate that the supply was extremely
group of wells near the Carnegie tract lie 4 mile northeast of the tract in the eastern portion of the borough of Cresson
at an elevation of 2,200. The Upper Freeport coal at this point is at an elevation of approximately 2,000 or 200 feet
below the surface. Three (> inch drilled wells have been located at this point and have been
drilled to depths of 100, 130 and 171 feet respectively. The two shallower wells have supplied
not over 15,000 gallons of water in 24 hours during the dry season of the current year. The 171 foot well, which was recently
drilled, was tested for 27 hours and gave a flow of 50 gallons per minute or 80,000 gallons
in 24 hours. This test was, however, made after the drought was broken.Immediately south of this group of wells on the side of the hill near the turnpike and at
elevation 2,231 there is another t! inch well belonging to Mr. Luther. This well is 190 feet deep and
had been in use several years. It was used by the water company during the drought of the current year as an auxiliary
for its water supply and furnished an estimated Quantity of 40,000 gallons per 24 hours, although
no tests were made of it.
will be noted that the two deepest wells in this group go down to a depth of approximately 20 feet above the Upper Freeport
coal. The Upper Freeport coal in this vicinity is covered with a layer of Mahoning sandstone, averaging up to 90 feet in thickness.
In drilling the deep well on the Cresson Water Works property it was noted by the well driller
that there were several streams of water which entered the well between the surface and the
final water bearing strata. The main supply, however, entered the well through the sandstone formation towards the bottom.
This same sandstone formation in all probability feeds the Luther well. This water bearing strata outcrops on the extreme
eastern portion of the Carnegie tract so that there is a storage of water for wells at this location of much greater extent
than the storage on the western portion of the Carnegie tract.
Another group of wells has been drilled at Bens Creek 5 miles southwest of Summit on the Main Line of the Pennsylvania
Railroad. These wells were drilled to furnish the pumping station of the Standard Oil Company with a water supply and
have been very successful. The Upper Freeport coal outcrops at the surface of the ground at Bens Creek and
underlying it are various strata intermingled with coal layers, several of which such as the Miller seam are mined.
Under these coal layers which extend to a depth of 150 feet or more, there is a 100 foot layer of Connoquenessing sandstone
and below this there are thick beds of soft red shale followed by a thick bod of sandstons underlaid
with silicious limestone formation. In the wells constructed at this point a large well was sunk through the coal measures
into the sandstone underlying them and cased out and completely
sealed, so as to cut out the sulphur water from the coal measures. A smaller well was then sunk through the sandstone into
the underlying red shale. Two wells were constructed in this manner and proved very successful.
The largest well was 8 inches in diameter and 432 feet deep and upon
completion overflowed ■ at the surface with soft water. The second well was 0 inches in diameter and
approximately 500 feet deep. This well did not overflow, but water stood in it to within 0 inches of the surface.It is reported that recently a third hole has been
sunk by the Standard Oil Company at the Bens Creek pumping station. This well was sunk to obtain addi- , tional water for
condensing purposes. The well at this point, according to reports has been sunk to a depth of 780 feet and
a vein of salt water has been struck, also gas.The report of the U. S. Geological Survey indicates that this red shale formation which supplies the water to this
last group of wells underlies the Carnegie tract of land also and outcrops along the eastern
slope of the mountain a mile east of the Cambria-Blair County line.. The outcrop is along the steep slopes of the mountain
in this section, while east of Bens Creek the outcrop is along the top of the mountain in flat territory, permit ting far
better facilities for the entrance 3f the water. As the vein is reported to be 100 feet thick and as
there is considerable storage in this strata for wells which would be driven along the western side of the Carnegie property
it is not improbable that a supply of water could be obtained from this stream.The water supply for the borough of Gallitzin was originally obtained from several drilled wells.
is reported that these wells were supplied by strata located above the Upper Freeport coal similar 10 the location of the
Luther well and-the deep well on the Cresson Water Company property.
When the coal was mined these wells went dry and the water supply for (Jallilzin has since thai
time been supplied by the Coal ('ompan.v.Nearly all the streams in this vicinity have already been taken for water supplies. Most of them are controlled by
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company or by the American I'ipe Manufacturing Company, which it is reported acts in conjunction
with the Railroad Company.East
of the sanatorium property are Rlair (lap Run and Adams Run which
flows through deep ravines easterly towards Ilollidaysburg. I'.lairs (Jap Run is used during I he dry season to its full
capacity by the Blahs Gap Run Water Supply Company to supply the railroad at Altoona. Adams Run is used by the Ilollidaysburg
Water Works Company and the entire surplus is used by the Rlair Cap Water Supply Company. This
company has two main storage reservoirs, one on Blairs Cap Run above the junction of Adams Run and
one below it.
Run, which lies north of Rlairs Cap Run in the Muleshoe of the Pennsylvania Railroad, is reported to be held in reserve by
the city of Altocna for an additional water supply. This is two miles north of the Carnegie tract and
is at such a low elevation that the cost of pumping the water from a storage reservoir on this run would be high.Poplar Run, which lies south of Rlairs (Jap Run on
the eastern slope of the mountains, is reported to be unused at present for a water supply. This run is five miles from the
Carnegie tract and it would require very heavy pumping to lift the water to the sanatorium.
Bradley's Run. north
of Summit, which Hows northerly near the eastern boundary of Gallitzin, is also used by the American Pipe Slanufacturing Company.
They have a reservoir on this run at a distance of one mile from the Carnegie tract and this
water is used to supply the railroad.
Clearfield Creek which lies li miles west of the borough of Cresson, contains a good
flow of water which is not used at present for public water supply. There are some large ponds on this creek just west of
Cresson which are used by an ice company for an ice supply and large
shipments of ice are made from this pond to Altoona and other points. During the drought of
l!MHi, a weir was placed on Clearfield Creek near the wooden bridge which crosses this stream on the Pine Grove and
Cresson road. A rending was taken on the weir on December (ith, at the time of the lowest Mow of water and
a flow of 2(H),000 gallons in 24 hours was obtained. This point is on the creek above the branch which drains Sankertown
and the northern portion of Cresson Borough. The drainage area
of the creek above thts weir is 5 square miles, so that there is a run-off for this territory amounting to 0.002 cubic feet
per second per square mile during the driest season known. The Cresson Water Company is planning
to place their pumping station on this creek and to construct a large storage reservoir and to pump the water from this point to a point on the summit near the Canwjrie property. If this
installation is made the water rights on this creek during the dry season would be practically exhausted and
for an additional supply it would be necessary to depend entirely tilion storage. The distance from this creek to the
Carnegie property is 3 miles and it would require a lift of nearly 1 .(Mil) feet to provide
ample pressure at the sanatorium so that the cost of pumping would be high.
The small streams which head in the ravines on the
western slope of the Carnegie property, of which mention has been made before in this report, unite near Plane No. 5 on the
Portage Road and form one stream which Hows southwesterly towards Lilly. As previously stated,
a weir was placed on this creek during the fall of 190!) at a point 200 feet west of the Old Freeport Road on private property.
The flow as measured on the weir at this point in December was 02,750 gallons per 24 hours. A reading was also taken on this
weir on December 8th, when the flow of 38,000 gallons was obtained. At the time of this latter reading the flow of water was
held in check by heavy ice on the creek, so that it does not represent the lowest flow under normal conditions. The watershed
drained at this point has an area of one square mile so that the minimum run-off under normal conditions is 0.082 cubic feet
per second per square mile. As previously stated, this watershed drains the main portion of the Carnegie tract consisting
of the entire western slope. It appears, however, that most of the flow during the dry season comes from strata immediately
above the Upper Freeport coal which outcrops at this point.
Burgoon Run, which is also known as Adams Run, lies one-half mile south of the Carnegie tract and
flows westerly entering Bear Rock Run immediately west of Lilly. This run beads at Adams (Jap and
flows through a territory which is very sparsely settled and is mainly covered with a
second growth of timber. During the dry season of 100!) there was no water flowing in this run at a point one mile from its
source. Sites for the construction of storage reservoirs on this run are available and an ample
supply could be obtained during the wet season for filling the storage reservoirs.Two miles south of the Cresson tract Christie
Hollow Run, which heads in Laurel (Jap and flows westerly, unites with Bear Rock Run which in
turn Hows westerly, passing through Lilly at a distance of 2 miles from the junction. The water supply
for the borough of Lilly is taken trom Rear Hock Run nt a point just below the junction of Christie Hollow Run. There is no
attempt at providing storage for the Lilly supply and the intake
consists of a crude dam which probably permits of a certain amount of leakage. <»n Rear Rock Run just above the junction
with Christie Hollow Run are two large storage reservoirs belonging to Bear Rock Water Company, which lias been purchased
by the Summit Water Supply Company. This Company belongs to the American I'ipe Manufacturing Company and
is used to supply the Pennsylvania Railroad with water in the (Jallitzin district. The two
reservoirs have storage capacity of 10,000,(100 gallons and 2.1,000,000
gallons respectively and furnish a gravity supply. It is reported
that during the dry season this company is compelled to divert a portion of its water from these reservoirs into the creek
to supply the borough of Lilly and that the amount which they
arc compelled to divert is in a proportionate ratio to the amount supplied from Christie Hollow Run. A weir was placed on Christie Hollow Run and
on December 4th, a reading was taken on this weir which gave a How of 02,000 gallons per 24 hours. This weir is located
at a distance of one-half mile above the junction with Rear Rock Run at an elevation of approximately 2,240 feet. There is
a drainage area at this point of 1.2 square miles, which gives a minimum run-off for this stream of 0.080 cubic feet per second
per square mile. There is a reservoir site of approximately 2o acres in- this vicinity, which has been considered by other
water companies for constructing a storage reservoir. It is reported that this site was offered to the Cresson
Water Company by the owner several years ago for $3,000. A mile oast of this point is the high point on the ridge which
was previously mentioned in this report as an available site for a reservoir. A certain amount of the dry weather flow of
this stream would have to be by-passed for the supply of the Lilly Water Works as in the case of the Rear Rock reservoir.There are two water companies from which water could
be obtained for supplying the sanatorium, namely; the Summit Water Supply Company and
the Cresson Water Company.
The Summit Water Supply Company has two 12 inch mains which extend through Cresson parallel
with the railroad. One of these mains extends along Sixth Street in the eastern portion of the borough and
is supplied from the two large storage reservoirs in Rear Rock Run, three miles south"hf Cresson
and at an elevation of 2,344 feet. The other main is supplied by a series of reservoirs located 12 miles or more south
of Cresscn on various streams which form the headwaters of the Conemaugh River. The two largest of these reservoirs have each
a capacity of over 200,000,000 gallons and are at elevations 2.3N7 and
2..'(42 respectively. It is reported, that this company sells water to the Pennsylvania Raillroad Company at eight
cents per thousand gallons. Recently this company has entered into an agreement to supply water to the borough of Cresson
at wholesale rates, the said borough furnishing the distributing pipe lines.
The main from the Rear Rock Water Supply Company which is the nearest
main to the Cresson tract could be tapped at a point J of a mile from the western boundary of
the Carnegie tract. It would be necessary to install the pumping plant at this point and pump
the water to a reservoir or standpipe on the tract. The supply furnished from the Rear Rock reservoirs should be of very excellent
quality as there are only one or two houses on the watershed and with the large storage, contamination
should be practically eliminated.
The Cresson Water Company is at present planning to make extensive additions to its
plant. It is the intention of this company to install a pumping plant on Clearfield Creek just above th« ice company's
pond and to pump from a large storage reservoir at this point to a distributing reservoir to
be located on the property on the north side of the highway adjacent to the Carnegie property. This main force line will extend
along the highway through the Carnegie property. The elevation of the reservoir on this si'e will be too low to supply
the institution by gravity and it will be necessary to install a pumping plant and
lift the water to a reservoir or stand pipe on the property. The water obtained for this supply from Clearfield Creek
is subject to contamination from various houses on the watershed and will have to be treated.
The water company will be directed as to the requirements of the Commissioner of Health in the permit which the Commissioner
of Health will issue at an early date to this company for the construction of this additional supply. It is not known what
the rates of this company will be for furnishing water or how soon this supply will be completed. The company states that
they intend to immediately proceed to install this additional supply.
From the facts presented it appears that there is no spring supply available for the institution during the dry season,
and that in case a surface supply is used storage would have to be resorted to. It has been
planned several times in the past few years by the borough officials of Cresson to construct
storage reservoirs on Burgoon Run and Christie Hollow Run in order to furnish a gravity supply
of water to the borough of Cresson. I'nfortunately the borough has not been in a financial
condition to carry out this scheme and in fact no plans have ever been prepared. It is also
reported that the Cresson Water Company at one time had considered using the Christie Hollow
Run Supply. This is undoubtedly the best surface water supply available in this distrjet at present and
with a large storage reservoir would furnish an excellent supply for the State Institution, although as previously
stated, it will be necessary to pump it with a medium lift.
The population of Lilly Borough is approximately 1,500 people and with a per capita
consumption o£ 50 gallons it is probable that the water consumption Joes not exceed 75,000 gallons per day. Of this
amount 35,000 gallons would have to be by-passed from Christie Hollow Run, which would leave a dry weather flow available
of 27,000 gallons. This would require for 120 days' storage with a consumption of 100,000 gallons per day for the sanatorium a storage reservoir of 10,000,000 gallons. This would not
be an excessively large reservoir and would be small compared with the large reservoirs belonging
to the Summit Water Supply Company previously described.
It would probably be unnecessary to treat the water obtained from this source as there are no houses on the watershed
and it is covered with a second growth of timber. The location of a good distributing reservoir
site within a distance of one mile east of this run is very advantageous and this site is conveniently
located with respect to the institution site as it is only 1J miles from the probable site for the buildings at the institution.
In case it was found
on making surveys that it was inadvisable to construct a 10,000,000 gallon reservoir on this creek it would be possible to
construct another storage reservoir on Burguon Run mid use the combine storage of these two reservoirs for supplying the institution.
No estimates have been made on the construction of a water works system based on this scheme, as no surveys have been made
and without them it is impossible to determine the cost of constructing the reservoirs.
It would appear from the results
obtained from the Standard Oil Company's wells at Bens Creek that a water supply from drilled wells might be obtained
for the sanatorium by sinking the wells to the red shale formation which underlies this district
at a depth of 500 to 600 feet. The result obtained from shallower wells would indicate that an adequate supply could not be
obtained from the strata above the coal veins. It might be possible to obtain a supply from the strata immediately above-the Upper Freeport coal which supply water to the two successful wells
in Cresson Borough. These wells could hardly be considered permanent and
judging from the experience of Gallitzin, there would be a grave danger that these wells would fail after the coal
is mined from under this tract of land.
In case an adequate supply of water is'not obtained from the wells it would be possible to use water from one
of the water company's supplies as an auxiliary.The water from one of the water companies might also be used as an auxiliary to the water from the creeks which flow
from the western slope of the Carnegie tract. These creeks, during the winter season and probably
during a good portion of the year, furnish a large supply of water and if it was possible to
protect them from the drainage from the sanatorium an excellent supply of water could be obtained
for at least a portion of the year. The use of water company water-could also be made an auxiliary to the flow from Christie
Hollow Run or from Burgoon Run. These two runs also during a good portion of the year would provide an ample supply of water
and in case it was found that a storage reservoir was too expensive it might he advisable to
use the normal flow from these streams.
An estimate of the cost of drilling a test well to extend to the red shale formation has been made on the basis of
the cost of drilling wells at Cresson to the depth of this strata as given by the U. S. Geological
Survey. The estimates of the cost of this well have been prepared for two locations, one on the turnpike on the northwestern
portion of the tract immediately east of the village of Summit. This well would be located conveniently for tapping the main
of the Cresson Water Company and it would also be conveniently
located for extending a pipe line along the turnpike from the Summit Water Supply Company's main. The other site would
be located in the western portion of the tract on the creeks which unite at l'lane No. 5 of the Portage Road. This well
would not be conveniently located for obtaining water from the water company pipe lines but would be well located for use
in connection with the water supply in the creek at l'lane No. 5
Before any final decision is reached with respect to the water supply for the Institution, a further investigation
should be made. The following arc the conclusions derived from the investigations just made:
FIRST: That the springs on the Carnegie tract should
be developed and used so long as they last.
SECOND: The springs should be supplemented by a supply from the run until
it is exhausted.
An auxiliary supply should be obtained from a drilled well made shallow if good water and enough
of it can be foiyid in the coal measures. Otherwise drill it into the loose red shale below the A seam. This will make a depth
estimated between 5<M) to 700 feet.
FOURTH: Put in a connection to the Summit Water Supply Company's main, or that of the Cresson
If all these sources should fail, then build the Christie Hollow- supply and as a safeguard
purchase options of long term on Christie Hollow Run.
In the west end of the Carnegie tract there is a natural basin away from pollution at the head of a ravine fed by
a spring that can be turned into an ice pond by the building of a dam. In case of a drought in the winter time, the basin
could be filled with water from the force main which is likely to be laid out on the line tothe. hill where the standpipe or storage reservoir may be built passing
along near the site proposed for the ice pond. This would be on the assumption that the main supply of water would be ample
at all times.
natural pond now existing at the Portage Road could be developed and made an excellent place
for the harvesting of ice. Of course, if the water from the run were good enough to be used for drinking purposes, it ought
to be a good enough for ice. In either case the sewage purification plant from the institution would be located further down
stream unless it were located in the valley of Burgoon Run next west of Spring Run and off the
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